In how many ways can the letters of the word ‘FAILURE’ be arranged so that the consonants may occupy only odd positions?
Solution: The word ‘FAILURE’ has four vowels (E, A, I, U) The number of consonants is three (F, L, R) Let’s use the letter C to represent consonants. 1, 3, 5, or 7 are the odd spots. The consonants can be placed in 4P3 ways in these 4 odd spots. The remaining three even places (2, 4, 6) will be filled by the four vowels. This can be accomplished in a variety of 4P3 methods. As a result, the total number of words with consonants in odd locations = 4P3 × 4P3. Using the formula, we can $ P\text{ }\left( n,\text{ }r \right)\text{ }=\text{ }n!/\left( n-r \right)! $ $ P\text{ }\left( 4,\text{ }3 \right)\text{ }\times \text{ }P\text{ }\left( 4,\text{ }3 \right)\text{ }=\text{ }4!/\left( 4-3 \right)!\text{ }\times \text{ }4!/\left( 4-3 \right)! $ $ =\text{ }4\text{ }\times \text{ }3\text{ }\times \text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }1\text{ }\times \text{ }4\text{ }\times \text{ }3\text{ }\times \text{ }2\text{ }\times \text{ }1 $ $ =\text{ }24\text{ }\times \text{ }24 $ $ =\text{ }576 $ As a result, there are 576 different ways to arrange the consonants so that they only appear in odd positions. Answer VerifiedHint: There are 7 letters in the word FAILURE. Of these, we have to choose 4 letters such that F is present in each word. Therefore, F is fixed. So the number of remaining letters is 3. We can choose these 3 letters from the remaining 6 letters of the word FAILURE in $^{6}{{C}_{3}}$ . These 4 letters can be arranged in 4! ways. To find the number of four letter words that can be formed using the letters of FAILURE so that F is included in each word, we have to multiply 4! and $^{6}{{C}_{3}}$ . Similarly, there are $^{6}{{C}_{4}}$ ways to select 4 letters from the word FAILURE by excluding F. These 4 letters can be arranged in 4! ways. By multiplying 4! and $^{6}{{C}_{4}}$ , we can find the required number of words by excluding F. Complete step by step answer: We have to find the number of four letter words that can be formed using the letters of the word FAILURE so that F is included in each word and F is not included in any word. We can see that the total number of letters in the word FAILURE is 7. Of these, we have to choose 4 letters. Let us find the solution to each of the given sections.1) From the 4 letters, we have to include F in each word. Therefore, remaining letters are 3. We can choose 3 letters from the remaining 6 letters of the word FAILURE . We know that the number of ways to selecting r objects from n objects is given by $^{n}{{C}_{r}}$ . Therefore, the number of ways of choosing 3 letters from the remaining 6 letters of the word FAILURE is $^{6}{{C}_{3}}$ . Now, we can arrange the four letters in 4! ways. Therefore, number of four letter words that can be formed using the letters of the word FAILURE so that F is included in each word is given by$\Rightarrow 4!{{\times }^{6}}{{C}_{3}}$We know that $^{n}{{C}_{r}}=\dfrac{n!}{\left( n-r \right)!r!}$ . Therefore, the above expression can be expanded as$\begin{align} & \Rightarrow 4!\times \dfrac{6!}{\left( 6-3 \right)!3!} \\ & =4!\times \dfrac{6!}{3!3!} \\ \end{align}$We know that $n!=n\times \left( n-1 \right)\times \left( n-2 \right)!$ . Therefore, the above expression can be expanded as$\Rightarrow 4\times 3!\times \dfrac{6\times 5\times 4\times 3!}{3!3!}$Let us cancel the common terms.$\begin{align} & \Rightarrow 4\times \require{cancel}\cancel{3!}\times \dfrac{6\times 5\times 4\times \require{cancel}\cancel{3!}}{\require{cancel}\cancel{3!}\require{cancel}\cancel{3!}} \\ & =4\times 6\times 5\times 4 \\ & =480 \\ \end{align}$Therefore, there are 480 words that can be formed using the letters of the word FAILURE so that F is included in each word.2) From the 4 letters, we should not include F. Therefore, there are total of 6 letters in the word FAILURE by eliminating F. From these 6 letters, we have to choose 4 letters. We can do this in $^{6}{{C}_{4}}$ ways. We can arrange these 4 letters in 4! Ways. Therefore, the number of four letter words that can be formed using the letters of the word FAILURE so that F is not included in any word is given by$\Rightarrow 4!{{\times }^{6}}{{C}_{4}}$Let us apply the formula of combination in the above expression.$\begin{align} & \Rightarrow 4!\times \dfrac{6!}{\left( 6-4 \right)!4!} \\ & =4!\times \dfrac{6!}{2!4!} \\ \end{align}$We know that $n!=n\times \left( n-1 \right)\times \left( n-2 \right)!$ . Therefore, the above expression can be expanded as$\Rightarrow 4!\times \dfrac{6\times 5\times 4\times 3\times 2!}{2!4!}$Let us cancel the common terms.$\begin{align} & \Rightarrow \require{cancel}\cancel{4!}\times \dfrac{6\times 5\times 4\times 3\times \require{cancel}\cancel{2!}}{\require{cancel}\cancel{2!}\require{cancel}\cancel{4!}} \\ & =6\times 5\times 4\times 3 \\ & =360 \\ \end{align}$Therefore, there are 360 words that can be formed using the letters of the word FAILURE so that F is not included in any word.Note: Students must be thorough with the concept and formulas of permutation and combination. They must know when to apply permutation and combination. We use permutation, when the order is a concern while combination doesn’t consider the order of elements. They have a chance of getting confused with the formulas of permutation and combination. The formula for permutation is $^{n}{{P}_{r}}=\dfrac{n!}{\left( n-r \right)!}$ . Students must never miss multiplying 4! With the combination in the above solution. |